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Understanding Sustainable Development Goals and its 2030 Targets

Sustainable Development Goals

The 2030 agenda for Sustainable Development Goals is a global challenge that strives for prosperity, equality, peace, partnership and rule of law while ending poverty and protecting the natural resources of our planet.

The agenda is founded on the principles of common and differentiated responsibilities and is grounded in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, International Human Rights Treaties, the Millennium Declaration and the 2005 World Summit Outcome Document. Its wings span right across social, economic and environmental dimensions, giving a good balance of development and addressing systemic barriers to sustainable development goals.

The success of the 17 goals depends on aligning its 169 associated targets with existing international agreements. It has been calculated that between these targets, 49 are well developed (29%), 91 should be more specific (54%) and 29 require significant work (17%).

Some of these targets fall into the sphere of more than one of the 17 goals, though it is possible that the implementation of certain targets may be to the detriment of other goals. However this downfall can be reversed if the trade-off between targets are tackled in an integrated manner rather than being pursued separately.

The following table offers a concise summary of the goals and their basic target associations that must be reached globally by the year 2030:








 End poverty in all its forms everywhere



 Eradicate extreme poverty; ensure equal rights of  economic resources, basic services and ownership  of land; introduce new technology and  microfinances; build resilience of the poor and  create sound policy frameworks globally that  support accelerated investment in poverty  eradication actions.





 End hunger, achieve food security and  improved nutrition and promote  sustainable agriculture



 Ensure access to safe, nutritious and sufficient  food to all poverty stricken areas; double the  agricultural productivity and incomes of small-  scale food producers; ensure sustainable food  production systems and implement resilient  agricultural practices; increase investment in rural  agriculture and ensure the proper functioning of  food commodity markets and their derivatives.





 Ensure healthy lives and promote well-  being for all at all ages



 Reduce maternal and neonatal mortality; end the epidemics of AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria and       neglected tropical diseases; prevention and           treatment of substance abuse; ensure access to     sexual and reproductive health-care systems;       achieve universal health coverage; reduce death   and illness from hazardous chemicals and             pollution; support the research, development and   distribution of medicine and vaccines.





 Ensure inclusive and equitable quality  education and promote lifelong learning

 opportunities for all



 Ensure global access to childcare development  and free quality education; increase employment  opportunities; expand the scholarships available  to developing countries; achieve literacy and  numeracy across the globe as much as possible;  substantially increase the supply of qualified  teachers.





 Achieve gender equality and empower all  women and girls



 Eliminate discrimination, violence and harmful  practices against girls and women; recognize and  value unpaid care and domestic work; ensure  equal opportunities for leadership; ensure access  to ownership and control over land and  inheritance; enhance the use of information and  communications technology.





 Ensure availability and sustainable  management of water and sanitation for  all



 Ensure universal and equitable access to clean  and affordable drinking water, sanitation and  hygiene; half the proportion of untreated  wastewater; increase recyclable water; reduce  water scarcity; protect and restore water-related  ecosystems; improve water sanitation  management.





 Ensure access to affordable, reliable,  sustainable and modern energy for all



 Ensure access to affordable, reliable and modern  energy services; increase the share of renewable  energy; promote investment in energy  infrastructure and clean energy technology;  expand infrastructure; upgrade technology for  supplying modern and sustainable energy  services.





 Promote sustainable inclusive and  sustainable economic growth, full and  productive employment and decent work  for all



 Achieve productive employment and equal pay to  men, women and disabled; eradicate forced  labour, modern slavery and human trafficking;  protect labour rights and promote safe working  environments; implement the Global Jobs Pact of  the International Labour Organization; promote  sustainable tourism; sustain per capita economic  growth in accordance with national circumstances.





 Build resilient infrastructure, promote  inclusive and sustainable industrialization  and foster innovation



 Develop quality, reliable, sustainable, affordable,  resilient and environmentally sound  infrastructure; improve developing countries’  integration into value chains and markets;  enhance access and information resources of  scientific research and upgrade technological  capabilities in developing countries.





 Reduce inequality within and among  countries



 Empower and promote the social, economic and  political inclusion of all; promote legislations and  fiscal, wage and social protection policies that  eliminates discriminatory laws; enhance the  representation and voice of developing countries  in global economic and financial decision-making;  implement well-manages migration policies;  improve the regulation of global financial  markets; reduce the cost of migrant remittance.





 Make cities and human settlements  inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable



 Ensure access of safe and affordable housing,  basic services and transport; protect cultural and  natural heritage; reduce adverse environmental  impacts by improving air quality and waste  management; ensure access to safe, inclusive  and accessible, green and public spaces; provide  financial and technical assistance in building  sustainable and resilient buildings utilizing local  materials.





 Ensure sustainable consumption and  production patterns



 Achieve the sustainable management and  efficient use of natural resources; reduce food  waste and waste generation; encourage large and  transnational companies to adopt sustainable  practices; support developing countries to  strengthen their scientific and technological  capacity to move towards more sustainable  patterns of consumption and production.





 Take urgent action to combat climate  change and its impacts



 Strengthen resilience to climate-related hazards  and natural disasters; integrate climate change  measures into national policies; improve  education and awareness on climate change  mitigation; fully operationalize the Green Climate  Fund as soon as possible.





 Conserve and sustainably use the oceans,  seas and marine resources for sustainable  development



 Prevent and significantly reduce marine pollution;  manage and protect marine coastal systems;  address the impacts of ocean acidification; end  overfishing, illegal, unreported and unregulated  and destructive fishing patterns; increase and  transfer scientific and marine technology to  improve ocean health.




 Protect and restore sustainable use of  terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably  manage forests, combat desertification,  and halt and reverse land degradation and  halt biodiversity loss



 Ensure the conservation, restoration and  sustainable use of terrestrial and inland  freshwater ecosystems; implement sustainable  management of all types of forests; increase  afforestation and reforestation; restore degraded  land and soil; ensure conservation of mountain  ecosystems; reduce the degradation of natural  habitats; halt the loss of biodiversity; take urgent  action to end poaching and trafficking of  protected species; provide adequate incentives to  developing countries to advance forest  management.



GOAL 16 


 Promote peaceful and inclusive societies  for sustainable development, provide  access to justice for all and build  effective, accountable and inclusive  institutions at all levels



 Reduce violence/violence related death; end  abuse, exploitation, trafficking and torture;  combat all forms of organized crime; reduce  corruption and bribery; strengthen the  participation of developing countries in the  institutions of global governance; protect  fundamental freedoms; enforce non-  discriminatory laws and policies for sustainable  development.





 Strengthen the means of implementation  and revitalize the global partnership for  sustainable development



 Improve domestic capacity for tax and other  revenue collection; mobilize additional financial  resources for developing countries; promote    policies aimed at fostering debt financing, debt  relief and debt restructuring; promote the  development, transfer, dissemination and  diffusion of environmentally sound technologies to  developing countries; promote a universal, rules-  based, open, non-discriminatory and equitable  multilateral trading system under the World Trade  Organization; increase the exports of developing  countries; enhance global macroeconomic  stability; encourage and promote effective public,  public-private and civil society partnerships;  develop measurements of progress on sustainable  development that complement gross domestic  product.



For a full description of the targets explained above, read more on the Sustainable Development Goal Knowledge Platform.  

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